The Rights Illusion

Access to Justice and the Rights of Non-Citizens in Malaysia

Alice Nah University of York

The modern articulation of the rights of all has its roots in the formation of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 and in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. According to this framework, all non-citizens have certain rights, including those with irregular legal status. They have the right to be free from arbitrary killing, torture, inhumane treatment, arbitrary arrest and detention, slavery, and forced labour (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2006). 

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